Fallacies

Material

Linguistic

1. Equivocation
2. Amphiboly
3. Accent
4. Slanting
5. Slogans
6. Hyperbole
7. “Straw Man”

Diversive

1. Ad Hominem
2. Ad Verecundian
3. Ad Baculum
4. Ad Misericordiam
5. Ad Populum
6. Ad Ignorantiam

Oversimplified

1. Dicto Simpliciter
2. “Special Case”
3. Composition
4. Division
5. “The Black-and-White Fallacy”
6. Quoting out of Context
7. Stereotyping

Argumentative

1. Non Sequitur
2. Ignoratio Elenchi
3. Petitio Principii
4. “Complex Question”
5. Arguing in a Circle
6. Contradictory Premises
7. False Assumption

Inductive

1. Hasty Generalization
2. Post hoc, ergo propter hoc
3. Hypothesis Contrary to Fact
4. False Analogy
5. Argument from Silence
6. Selective Evidence
7. Slanting the Question

Procedural

1. “Refuting” and Argument by Refuting its Conclusion
2. Assuming that Refuting an Argument Disproves Its Conclusion
3. Ignoring an Argument
4. Substituting Explanations for Proof
5. Answering Another Argument than the One Given
6. Shifting the Burden of Proof
7. Winning the Argument but Losing the Arguer, or Vice Versa

Metaphysical

1. Reductionism or “Nothing Buttery”
2. The Fallacy of Accident
3. Confusing Quantity with Quality
4. The Fallacy of Misplaced Concreteness
5. Confusing the Logical, Psychological, and Physical “Because”
6. The Existential Fallacy
7. Confusing the Natural with the Common

Wherefore by their fruits ye shall know them (Matt 7:20).

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