Philosophical science is axiological, epistemological and ontological. Each is listed in order of importance. First. axiological considerations, which are based on values, assesses morals, ethics, and their principles. Second, epistemological considerations, which are based on value systems (i.e., moral and ethical principles), allow beliefs, views, and even traditions to be assessed accordingly. Third, ontological considerations allow for epistemological fluidity and concreteness in light of valuation. Together, each are enlightened by deductive and inductive inferential reasoning.

  1. Axiology
  2. Epistemology
  3. Ontology


Philosophy is practiced according to theoretical framework used to frame such methods as those used by metaphysicists.

Axiology. The system governing all other systems is axiological. Axiological framework is a system of values concerning morals, ethics, and principles as frames of reference.

Epistemology. The science of philosophy is epistemological. Philosophical science studying epistemology studies beliefs and their systems, views according to viewpoints, and traditions.


Scientific research is classified according to three different paradigms: quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methodology. Where quantitative research utilizes statistical approaches as a means of understanding particular aspects of human experience, and qualitative research seeking to obtain similar goals albeit via non-statistical means, mixed methodology instead relies on a combination of quantitative and qualitative aspects in varying proportions.

Scientific. Scientific research possesses three natures. The three natures are qualitative, quantitative, and mixed. These natures are either cultivated by schools following the Boulder or Vail models.

Philosophic. Philosophic research is

Paradigmatic. Paradigmatic research blends both methods and schools. The methods that are blended are scientific and philosophical. The schools that are blended include both the Boulder and Vail models.


Definition. A science is any organized body of knowledge; the basis for the organization of any science is the first principles of the science; from its first principles a science constructs a superstructure of derivative principles and laws; guided by those derivative principles and laws, a science is then able to speak intelligently and revealingly about that particular aspect of the natural world upon which it focuses its attention1

Scientific Method

1. Observe phenomenon and review literature
2. Develop research question and develop hypothesis
3. Select research method and design the study
4. Conduct study and collect data
5. Analyze data
5. Report results


In qualitative research where the researcher is the instrument, researchers focus on capturing and studying the complex phenomena occurring in natural or “real world” environments. ┬áBy maintaining objectivity, qualitative research attempts to reduce bias associated with one’s perceptions or impressions. In addition, qualitative research is the collection of non-numeric verbal data through interviews or observation wherefore analyzing and categorizing content into meaningful units or themes.


1. Case Study
2. Ethnography
3. Phenomenological
4. Grounded Theory
5. Content Analysis


Quantitative research attempts to collect numerical data through tests and measures to analyze the frequency, central tendency, or the relationship of data to other data that is numerical.

Mixed Method Studies

Research based on mixed-methodology involves the collection of numerical data, which is analyzed statistically, and non-numeric data that is instead analyzed implementing a categorical system of organization, using a combination of differing measures such as tests and interviews in attempt to integrate their differences by discussing their inter-relationship. The mixed method approach represents the best of both worlds in that researchers are able to generalize quantitative data to populations at large while exposing a richness of meaning underlying the numerical results.


  1. McInerny, D. Q., (1999). Philosophical Anthropology. Elmhurst, PA: The Priestly Fraternity of Saint Peter
  2. OECD. (2002). Frascati Manual 2002: Proposed Standard Practice for Surveys on Research and Experimental Development, The Measurement of Scientific and Technological Activities, OECD Publishing. ISBN: 9789264199040

All scripture is given by inspiration of God and is profitable for doctrine, reproof, correction, and instruction in righteousness (2 Timothy 3:16).

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